RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (RT)
Radiographic Testing (RT), or industrial radiography, is a nondestructive testing (NDT) method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short wavelength electromagnetic radiation (high energy photons) to penetrate various materials. Industrial radiography involves exposing a test object to penetrating radiation so that the radiation passes through the object being inspected and a recording medium placed against the opposite side of that object. Different RT techniques include: film radiography, computed radiography, computed tomography, and digital radiography.
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)
Wet Fluorescent, Wet & Dry Visible Examination
Magnetic particle testing (MT) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) process for detecting surface and slightly subsurface irregularities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and some of their alloys. Permanent magnets or an electromagnet are used when applying the magnetic field. MT techniques include: yokes, prods, coils, heads, and central conductors.
LIQUID PENETRANT (PT)
Fluorescent & Visible Examination & Red Visible Dye
Dye penetrant inspection (DPI), also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) or penetrant testing (PT), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics). During this method, when a very low viscosity liquid is applied to the test piece, it will penetrate the fissures and openings on the surface. Once the excess liquid is removed, the penetrant trapped in those voids will flow back out, creating an indication. Techniques inclued in PT are: solvent removable, water-washable, post-emulsifiable.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)
Longitudinal & Shear Wave Examination
Ultrasonic testing (UT) is the same principle as used in naval SONAR and fish finding. Ultra-high frequency sound is introduced into the part being inspected and if the sound hits a material with a different acoustic impedance, some of the sound will reflect back to the sending unit and can be seen on a visual display. Techniques used in UT include: straight beam, angle beam, immersion testing, through transmission, phased array, and time of flight diffraction.
POSITIVE MATERIAL INSPECTION (PMI)
Positive Material Identification (PMI) is the analysis of a metallic alloy to establish composition by reading the quantities by percentage of its constituent elements. Typical methods for PMI include X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectrometry (OES).
HARDNESS, BRINELL TESTING
Hardness is a characteristic of a material, and is defined as the resistance to indentation. It is determined by measuring the permanent depth of the indentation. More simply put, when using a fixed force (load) and a given indenter, the smaller the indentation, the harder the material.
VISUAL EXAMINATION (VT)
Visual testing is the most commonly used test method in industry. Because most test methods require that the operator look at the surface of the part being inspected, visual inspection is inherent in most of the other test methods. As the name implies, VT involves the visual observation of the surface of a test object to evaluate the presence of surface discontinuities. VT inspections may be by Direct Viewing, using line-of sight vision, or may be enhanced with the use of optical instruments such as magnifying glasses, mirrors, boroscopes, charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and computer-assisted viewing systems (Remote Viewing). Corrosion, misalignment of parts, physical damage and cracks are just some of the discontinuities that may be detected by visual examinations.
WELD PROCEDURES & WELDERS QUALIFICATIONS
Generated for ASME, AWS, MIL, and others.
Tensile, Bend, Macro Etch
In destructive testing, or (Destructive Physical Analysis DPA) tests are carried out until the subject failes in order to understand a specimens performance or material behaviour under different loads. Methods of testing include tensile, bend, and macro etch. During tensile testing, the test object is subjected to consistent tension until failure. Bend testing requires bending the material at the midpoint over a given radius. Once fully bent, the material is inspected for cracks on the outer surface. The final method, macro etch, involves removal of a small section of the welded joint. These samples are polished across their cross-section and then etched using a mild acid mixture. The acid etch provides a clear visual appearance of the internal structure of the weld.
ADDITIONAL TESTING, WELDING AND TRAINING
To meet many MIL Standards, AWS, and more.